【考研英语】题源外刊第15期大城市不再是低技能工人的机缘之地(考研英语一和英语二的区别)

点击蓝字
重视咱们
原文期刊:金融时报
原文标题:
look for new start-ups to provide gig worker benefit
考研英语阅览论题-现代经济
集聚效应(agglomeration),是指各种工业和经济活动在空间上会集发生的经济作用以及招引经济活意向必定区域接近的向心力,是致使城市构成和不断扩展的根柢要素。
集聚效应是一种常见的经济表象,如工业的集聚效应,最典型的比方当数美国硅谷,集合了几十家全球it巨子和数不清的中小型高科技公司。
工业集群效应(cluster)是指会集于必定区域内特定工业的许多具有分工协作联络的不一样规划等级的公司与其打开有关的各种机构,组织等行为主体,经过纵横交错的网络联络紧密联络在一同的空间积累体,代表着介于商场和等级制之间的一种新的空间经济组织方法。是推进区域经济增加的重要方法,是区域立异体系的一种重要完成方法,是前进区域竞赛力的重要方法。
来历:baidu百科

这篇文章选自bloomberg.com(彭博网)2021.01.22文章big cities no longer deliver for low-skilled workers(大城市不再是低技能工人的机缘之地)。文章指出美国经济转型布景下,城市中中等技能作业渐趋不见,非大学生集体再难经过移居城市找到体面作业并前进收入,境况堪忧。

首要亮点与条理:

①这篇文章景象并非仅限于美国,而是如今许多国家面临的疑问;文章内容丰厚且归于大学生应晓得的信息;②规划清楚紧凑:引入如今表象“美国未上过大学的工人很难在城市找到体面作业,通往中产阶层充足日子的首要路途被关闭”(首两段)——分析缘由“制造业式微、城市转型”(第三至五段)——提出主张“在城市多建住所、压低房钱;借研讨型大学引入人才、复兴村庄;出台

旨在前进低薪工人经济福祉的鼓励性办法”(第六、七段)。

part 1
原文
ⅰ in a recent lecture, david autor, a labor economist, attempted to weave the biggest and most important issues together into a single story. paraphrasing heavily, that story goes something like this: forty years ago, americans who didn’t go to college could move to cities and get good jobs in manufacturing or office work. but starting in about 1980, these jobs began to disappear, thanks in part to offshoring and automation.

ⅱ workers without a college education were increasingly moved to low-skilled service jobs. even as educational inequality was growing, geographic inequality was growing as well. high-skilled occupations increasingly clustered in cities, while low-skilled service jobs have become more plentiful outside of urban centers. at the same time, wages for mid-skilled jobs like manufacturing and office work equalized between cities and rural areas — workers in these jobs can no longer get much of a pay bump by moving into town. thus, a major route to middle-class prosperity has been closed off.

ⅲ some of this can be explained by virtue of the two basic economic reasons for cities to exist in a modern economy — agglomeration, and clustering. agglomeration refers to the tendency of businesses of all types, but especially manufacturers, to locate near each other. this happens because employers want to be near to employees, who want to be near to the businesses they work for and buy goods from. the result is a city with lots of different industries.

ⅳ clustering on the other hand, refers to the tendency of companies within a single industry to want to be near each other. clustering effects are much stronger in knowledge-based industries like tech and finance, because ideas are their lifeblood, and workers who live near each other tend to share ideas with each other. clustering also arises because of the need for employers to have access to a deep pool of skilled workers.

ⅴ as the u.s. economy has transferred manufacturing overseas or automated it, and as consumers have moved from buying more physical goods to buying more digital services, agglomeration has become less important relative to clustering. the smokestack cities of the last century have given way to tech hubs and financial centers.

ⅵ so what’s to be done in order to help mid-skilled and non-college workers live decent, middle-class lives? and how can the emerging divide between small towns and big cities be arrested? one idea is to build lots more housing in cities, driving down rents and making cities more livable for everyone. another idea is to use research universities to revitalize economically depressed regions by dispersing knowledge workers to less-populated areas.

ⅶ but in the end, the government may simply have to step in and intervene on behalf of the services class. wage subsidies, portable pensions and various other incentives for higher wages can be deployed to make today’s low-skilled jobs more like the good office and factory jobs of yesteryear. the alternative may be to watch non-college workers and small towns fall further behind.

part 2
词汇短语
1.weave [wi:v] v.使组合,使交错
2.paraphrase [?p?r?fre?z] v.意译,改述
3. heavily [?hev?li] ad.严峻地,至极大程度
4.offshoring [??f???:r??] n.离岸外包
5.cluster [?kl?st?(r)] v.集合,集居
6.bump [b?mp] n.(薪酬等)数量上的添加
7.close off 关闭,关闭
8.by virtue of 因为,因为
9.agglomeration [??gl?m??re??n] n.集聚
10.lifeblood [?la?fbl?d] n.生命线,命脉
11.a deep pool of 一大批(可用的人员)
12.livable [‘l?v?b?l] a.宜居的
13.revitalize [?ri:?va?t?la?z] v.使得到复兴
14.disperse [d??sp?:s] v.使涣散
15.intervene [??nt??vi:n] v.干与
16. on behalf of 为了……的利益
17.wage subsidy 薪酬补助.portable pension 可携式养老金
18.incentive [?n?sent?v] n.鼓舞,影响
19.alternative [?:l?t?:n?t?v] n.两者(或两者以上之间)择一
20.deploy [d??pl??] v.使用

part 3
长难句语法指点
本句骨干为clustering effects are much stronger。in knowledge-based industries like tech and finance作状语。because缘由状语从句包括and联接的两个并排分句,后一分句嵌含定语从句who live near each other润饰workers。
part 3
写作句型学习
thanks in part to有些缘由归于……

原文例句:but starting in about 1980, these jobs began to disappear, thanks in part to offshoring and automation.而大约从1980年头步,这些作业初步不见,有些缘由归于外包和主动化。

so what’s to be done in order to do xx?one idea is to do aa. another idea is to do bb.那么,要做些啥来做到xx?一个主意是aa,另一个主意是bb。

原文例句:so what’s to be done in order to help mid-skilled and non-college workers live decent, middle-class lives? and how can the emerging divide between small towns and big cities be arrested? one idea is to build lots more housing in cities, driving down rents and making cities more livable for everyone. another idea is to use research universities to revitalize economically depressed regions by dispersing knowledge workers to less-populated areas.那么,要做些啥来协助中等技能及未上过大学的工人过上体面的中产日子?又如何来遏止小乡镇与大都市之间闪现的裂缝?一个主意是在城市多建住所,压低房钱,使城市对一切人都更宜居。另一个主意是凭仗研讨型大学使常识作业者涣散到人员较少区域,以复兴经济衰退区域。

……

本篇逐段翻译点评、逻辑收拾、要害词等
请扫描下方二维码购课阅览
《120篇题源外刊赏读》

《22考研英语题源外刊精讲精析》
主力课程,多次押华夏文

《22考研英语绝杀长难句》
万能三步-应试性强-阶梯式难度
【英语全年全课程畅享vip】
黄皮书名师团队,基础、前进、冲刺全掩盖

更多优惠好课,戳我看看吧

gong2022

gong2022

发表回复

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注

|京ICP备18012533号-320